Principles Of Value

A number of criterion or regulations are generally engaged in the evaluation process of a real estate property. These rules/ principles are elemental in identifying the value of a particular real estate property or provide details regarding how the different constituents of the property add up to the estate's total worth. Though these rules may be segregated for the purpose of a debate, in effect, they are all correlated in the real estate market.


In real estate business, the expression anticipation may be described as a law or theory asserting that the value of a property is produced through expected benefits or profits obtainable from wealth or facilities in future. In other words, value of a real estate may perhaps be identified as the current importance of all privileges of profits in times to come. Hence, while purchasing a new home, the buyers usually look forward to the amassed benefits that the property will offer afterward. Therefore, the acquisition price depends on the current worth of all expected advantages/ profits in the times ahead.


In terms of real estate business, the term balance is a theory/ rule that lays down that the value of a property is generated as well as preserved in the ratio to the stability achieved in the quantity and position of essential utilities of the real estate asset. The extent of the property's value is measured by the sense of balance of allocation of the aspects and agents in production. In effect, the value of the property will lead to a loss if there are too few services and organizations required by the locality and also if the locality has a surplus of services and agencies that it can actually sustain or accommodate. For instance, if there is an excess of stationers in a particular locality, it would mean that some will thrive at the cost of others or there may be a situation where none are able to produce sufficient return on their investments and continue suffering losses.

It is essential to maintain an appropriate equilibrium among the different means and aspects related to production, such as labor, capital, land and coordination, vis-à-vis each individual property with a view to obtain the utmost value of the property. The value of the property will be inclined to decrease if there is a surplus or scarcity of any of these aspects in comparison to the services offered by others. For instance, if there is a requirement of only one building caretaker, but there are two in place, it is bound to lead to a diminished earnings or profits after tax deductions. And this in turn will lead to a lesser value of the property when the earnings from the property are taken up during the particular property's evaluation process.


When we mention the expression 'change' in real estate business, it denotes a rule asserting that societal and financial powers are in action all the time and the transforms brought about by these forces have an influence on real estate property. Keeping this in view, an appraiser scrutinizes real estate property as well as its milieu like they are in a evolution mode. The real estate evaluators, therefore, scrutinize the indications of developments that are likely to have an influence on the property afterward. In fact, the law of change usually demonstrates that the value approximation made available by a real estate assessor is merely applicable for a particular period of time. Hence, the principle of change is a matter of continuous concern while approximating the value of a property. Because of the changing nature of the value in this case, it is mandatory for the appraisers to always clearly mention the effectual date of the evaluation on the report prepared by them.


In matters pertaining to the real estate business, the expression 'conformity' relates to an assessment rule asserting that the land ought to be used to rationally be conventional with the customs/ laws prevailing in a locality with a view to uphold the utmost value of the property. In this case, the term reasonable or rational signifies the extent of conformity or compliance. It needs to be mentioned here that compliance in excess often results to repetitiveness that may be equally damaging to the value as the total absence of conformity. For instance, compared to rows of indistinguishable houses in a residential locality, diversity in the style and construction of buildings of similar class on a street offers a more pleasant façade. In fact, the zoning rules guard a locality from switching over to or invasion of discordant uses of land and thereby maintain the law of conformity. The principle of conformity is effective in delineating the study of a locality.

Consistent Use

The phrase 'consistent use' signifies a rule or theory that affirms that when a developed land is in conversion to another uppermost and preeminent utility, the land cannot be evaluated with one utilization assigned to the land and another to the building constructed on it or any other upgrading matters related to real estate. In the event of a real estate evaluator approximating the worth of a plot of land in the real estate market that is upgraded with an old house, and makes an approximate calculation that the land can be utilized most excellently and mainly for developing it into an office building, then the estimation ought not to endow any value to the old house existing on that particular plot of land. In effect, conceding any additional value to the old construction will probably be incompatible as its value in the real estate marketplace is eclipsed by the business worth of the land and hence cannot be added to it. The principle of consistent use is denoted as double recovery while handling a recompense for an annexed property.


In matters pertaining to real estate, the expression 'contribution' denotes an evaluation rule asserting that the worth of any element of a real estate is determined by what it attaches to the net earnings on the basis of its existence or lessens from the net earnings/ market value owing to its non-existence. In this case the net income is also the market value of the property, in the event the property concerned does not yield any earnings, such as a residential building. As a result, the worth of any aspect in production relies on its input/ contribution to the net earnings or the market value and not on its price. It may be noted here that the principle of contribution is also often called the principle of marginal productivity.

External Factors

Real estate evaluators occasionally also mention the rule regarding external factors as externalities. This principle engages an extensive assortment of conditions that influence the value of any real estate property. In fact, the outside/ external aspects that are able to influence the market value of a property may be nearer home or far away. If the external factors are in the neighborhood of the property, then they may help in augmenting the market value of the property by the presence and proximity of different services that may be made available to the real estate. Taking a broad prospective, it may be said that in general the prevailing economic situations in the immediate neighborhood, the province or even the country is able to have influence on the market value of a real estate property. It may be mentioned here that the real estate is susceptible both to the economic affluence and also the economic slumps. On the other hand, government rules and prerequisites too have an effect on the real estate and often influence the market value of a property.

Highest And Best Use

In real estate matters, the phrase 'highest and best use' signifies the manner of utilization of a land, noted during the period of its evaluation, that is almost certain to yield the highest net earnings/ benefits in terms of money or facilities for a particular period of time. In the case of a revenue earning property the net earnings will most likely be in terms of cash, while in the instance of a residential dwelling, it will be in the form of facilities, such as pride of proprietorship, luxury and ease. However, the current utility of the building/ property is likely not to succeed in meeting the above explanation, if a location already possesses developments. It is important to note here that the present use of a real estate may not be described as the highest and best use of the property. However, the current use/ utility of a land will carry on characteristically but for the market value of the land in its utmost and preeminent use rallies or surpasses the entire worth of the property in its present use.

While assessing the market value of a land, the evaluator ought to not only judge its existing use, but also consider the potential uses of the land. The appraiser should mull over the probable uses of the property to which it is modified and competent of being utilized in a logically predictable time to come. However, it is advisable not to reflect on merely abstract expectations.

It is interesting to note that in most cases the highest and best use of a land has been found to be its existing use. This is primarily owing to the fact that the owners are normally inclined to use their property to achieve the maximum benefits and also because the financial demands generally determine the most advantageous or most gainful utilization of the land. Nevertheless, it would be wrong to state that the above view is always true. There are several instances where the land owners do not utilize their property as per the definition of the highest and best use of a real estate for different causes. Such instances may be frequently seen in lands situated by the side of the most important new freeways as well as the swiftly increasing regions where somewhat unexpected modifications in requirement take place and hence, suitable utilizations are called for. In addition to this, lapse of time also leads to thorough modifications in the most advantageous utilization of land.

Increasing And Decreasing Returns

The phrase 'increasing and decreasing returns' signifies a rule asserting that consecutive augmentations of one or several aspects are adjoined with predetermined quantities of the other aspects, a preliminary improvement of earnings in dollars, advantages or facilities take place to a position of utmost return, often denoted as a point of dwindling proceeds. Subsequent to this, there is a comparative decline in the growth of the value vis-à-vis the value of the additional aspects. Often this rule is also denoted as the principle of variable proportions or the principle of diminishing returns.


In matters pertaining to real estate, the expression 'progression' signifies a rule that may be defined an augmentation of the principle of conformity. According to the principle of progression, when properties of different values exist in the same neighborhood the value of an inferior real estate property is likely to have a helpful effect owing to the presence of another property of superior value. It may be mentioned here that the principle of conformity states that in order to preserve the highest value of a land, it ought to be made use of rationally complying with prevailing norms of the particular locality.


In real estate business, the expression 'regression' is considered to be an augmentation of the principle of conformity. This principle of conformity asserts that in order to uphold the utmost market value, the land ought to be made use of in rational conformity with the prevailing norms in the particular locality where the real estate is situated. In effect, the principle of regression expands this perception by means of affirming that when disparate real estate properties exist in the same neighborhood, the property with a lower market value will have a negative influence on the property possessing a superior value.


In issues pertaining to real estate, the rule of substitution states that no wise or sensible buyer will pay a penny more than what is the price of purchasing another or alternate desirable property available in the same real estate market. This rule deduces that the prospective buyers will mull over the options on hand and will act sensibly and discreetly depending on the facts regarding the substitute properties available. In addition, this rule states that time is never a significant issue in such cases as the buyer may acquire a substitute property without unnecessary postponement.

Supply And Demand

Supply and demand in the context of real estate business is a assessment standard which asserts that the market value of a property is decided by the reciprocal actions of the powers of supply and demand as on the day of the evaluation of the property. This rule affirms that when there is an increase in supply with the demand continuing to be stable, it will eventually lead to a drop in the prices of the real estate properties. On the contrary, if there is an enhancement of demand in the market, but the supply remains unvarying, it will lead to an escalation of real estate prices. However, when the supply and demand both rise and fall in the same ratio, the prices remain more or less constant. Hence, during the time of evaluation, the value of real estate is inclined to be fixed according to the relationship between supply and demand.

Surplus Productivity

In real estate business, the phrase 'surplus productivity' denotes a rule involving the earnings left following the tax deductions and once the expenditures required for the functioning have been reimbursed and the money endowed in carrying out upgrading has been complied with. The enduring net earnings are liable to the land and are likely to secure the worth of the real estate property. Therefore, the land is considered to be expensive as per the surplus or excessive productivity liable to it.

While a real estate owner is operating a income generating property returns are essential in three levels, while the fourth - the land - can only control the leftover net income having no permanent or required rate of return on investment. In general terms, these four levels of income are known as the different aspects in production and ought to be complied in the following sequence - labor, coordination/ management, capital/ resources and land. To a great extent, the excess productivity derivable to the land decides its value and if the real estate property is well developed, the land is supposed to generate a substantial return which will be on the basis of the land's existing pragmatic value.

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